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Carrots (Daucus carota) — a biennial plant of family of Celery

The ancestor of a cultural carrot is a wild carrot, widespread around Mediterranean area, around southern part of Europe and in Asia; entered into the culture in the first millenium of a new era. Since XIV-XV centuries it widely cultivates in Europe. In Russia the carrots are one of the basic vegetables of the culture. It cultivates everywhere, but it is most extended in a moderate strip of Russia, in Siberia, in the North Caucasus.


Presumably, carrots for the first time have started to grow in Afghanistan where till now grows most of all various kinds of Daucota carota. The nearest wild kinds are wild carrots: cultivars have been deduced from it by selection. Originally carrots were grown not for the sake of a root crop, but for the sake of a fragrant leaves and seeds. The first mention of the use of a root of carrots in food meets in antique sources in I century d.C. Modern carrots has been delivered to Europe in XIII-th century. Carrots are described in the Domestic tyranny, a monument of the Russian literature of XVI century. Orange carrots have appeared for the first time in Holland in a XVII-th century.


Carrots — a biannual plant (seldom one or long-term), in the first year of life form the socket of leaves and a root crop, in the second year of life — a seed bush and seeds. Root crops contain 5-10 mg% of ascorbic acid, 3-30 mg% of carotin (provitamin A), vitamins В1, В2, В6, Е, РР, etc., 5-10 % of sugar (in the best grades to 12 %), the big set of microcells and mineral salts. Root crops of intensive orange-red coloring — is in regards to the raised maintenance of carotin and a favorable combination of vitamins and mineral salts have special value. Carrots are useful in a crude and boiled kind, it's usually preserved and dried. Besides root crops, it's fruits has burning spiciness and it's leaves can be used in soups, sauces and etc. It's fruits can be added as a seasoning to various dishes, for example in marinades, alcoholic beverage manufactures, at the fish processing.


Carrots should be grown on fertile, easy mechanical structure soils with a deep arable layer. Sites with sandy or easy loaming soils which have a good drainage are most suitable. On heavy loamy and clay soils carrots grow crackly, weak, root crops strongly ramify, and during storage time they are more likely subject to rotting. Culture cold resistant, seeds start to sprout at the temperature of +3-5°С, shoots keep viability at a long cold snap, short-term frosts (to-3-4°S), and perish only at long frosts at the temperature lower -6°S. Carrots ripen approximately in 120 days after cropping.


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