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The potato is a starchy, tuberous crop from the perennial Solanum tuberosum of the Solanaceae family (also known as the nightshades).

Potatoes are grown in 130 countries where 75 % of the population of a planet lives. It is the fifth on value after wheat, corn, rice and barley a source of calories in a diet of the modern person. An average crop of this culture — apprx. 150 ts/hectares. Leading manufacturers of a potato are Russia, China, Poland, the USA and India.

In the world, 50% of a produced potato goes for food purposes, 35 % — on a forage to cattle and apprx. 10 % are left on a cropping material. In the USA 92 % of production are spent for food needs, and it's 57% are processed by the industry and 35 % are for the sale in a crude kind for cooking. The food-processing industry produces out the potato as fried (chips), dried, fast-frozen, in slices for a frying, potato flakes for mashed potatoes, etc.

A crude tuber of a potato contains 79 % of water, 18 % of carbohydrates, 2 % of fiber, 0,9 % of cindery substances and 0,4 % of cellulose. Tubers are rich with vitamin C, magnesium, phosphorus and potassium.


Potato's native lands are Peru and Bolivia where it has been cultivated approximately 2500 years ago. In 16th century the potato has been delivered to Spain, and to the middle of 17th century it became one of the basic food cultures of Northern Europe. Having got to Ireland in 1586, the potato in 50 years has turned to the main food of Irish. Addictiveness of the population on this culture was so great that when in 1845 and 1846 potatoes were infected by Phytophthora (the activator — mushroom Phytophthora infestans) brought from North America into the country, there was a terrible hunger of which has died about one million people and most of the population again emigrated, mainly in the USA.


Potato the tuberous — a grassy plant, upright at young age, but after blossoming lie flat. Stalks in length of 0,5-1,5 m, leaves are oddly cleaved, usually with 6—8 large downy leaves and small segments being between them. From underground sheet bosoms depart modified runaways, extending on the ends in tubers. The root system fibrous in radius to 60 sm gets on depth to 1,5 m. The flowers are formed in 6-12 inflorescences, a nimbus yellow, purple or blue. Pollination spreads by wind or insects, widespread self-pollination. A fruit — a spherical berry, in a ripe kind purple, containing up to 300 seeds. Seeds are flat, yellow or brown, very small.

Formation of tubers begins before the flowering and comes to an end in the end of the vegetative period. Anatomically they are arranged, as a usual stalk, but with a very powerful core in which starch is reserved. On a tuber surface, in the deepenings bordered with a sheet hem, the so-called eyes bearing on 3—4 kidneys lie. Tubers have the spherical or oblong form; for food purposes usually used what have reached at length of 8—13cm. Their External coloring happens to be white, yellow, pink, red or dark blue; and an internal part more likely white.

Potato plant


Potato grows better on easy loams with the subacidic reaction, containing 2% of organic substances. Usually they apply crop rotation with a clover which plow before potato planting.

Put small tubers or their fragments with one-three eyes. Optimum depth of planting — 5—8 sm

The big crop is provided with entering of a considerable quantity of fertilizers, first of all nitric and potash.

Approximately 10 days prior to harvesting elevated runaways (tops of vegetable) are mow down. It's done in order to reduce damage of tubers during excavation and storage. At a storage apprx. 5 % of weight of tubers will be lost for the account of a dehydration and proceeding breath. Usually the tubers cannot be stored for more than a year.


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